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Jong Suk Park  (Park JS) 14 Articles
The Association of Plasma HDL-Cholesterol Level with Cardiovascular Disease Related Factors in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Hye Sook Hong, Jong Suk Park, Han Kyoung Ryu, Wha Young Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):215-223.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.215
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death in type 2 diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients according to plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level and to document the effect of diet on HDL-cholesterol. METHODS: The subjects were 252 (male: 134, female: 118) Korean type 2 DM patients recruited from a general hospital's DM clinic and divided into low HDL-cholesterol group (male < 40 mg/dL, female < 50 mg/dL) and control group (male > or = 40 mg/dL, female > or = 50 mg/dL). Anthropometric and hematological variables and dietary intake were assessed by the groups. RESULTS: The subject's mean age was 60.2 +/- 1.1 years and duration of diabetes was 9.5 +/- 1.0 years. Anthropometric measurements (body fat mass, % body fat, WHR, fat free mass, and muscle mass) and BMI were not significantly different between two groups. The male subjects with low HDL-cholesterolemia showed higher Atherogenic Index (AI, P < 0.001) and higher % carbohydrate from energy than control group (P < 0.01). The female subjects with low HDL-cholesterolemia showed higher AI (P < 0.001) and a tendency of higher triglyceride level and lower intake of energy, protein, lipid, vitamin B1 and vitamin E (P < 0.05) than control group. CONCLUSION: The subject with low HDL-cholesterolemia showed significantly higher AI. Male subject with low HDL-cholesterolemia consumed higher carbohydrate and female subject with low HDL-cholesterolemia showed lower intakes of many nutrients. This result suggests the importance of an adequate and balanced diet to manage type 2 DM patients to prevent CVD complications.

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  • Improvement of High-fat Diet-induced Obesity by Xanthigen in C57BL/6N Mice
    Kyeong-Mi Choi, Youn-Sun Lee, Wonkyun Kim, Yung-Hyun Choi, Youn-Gil Kwak, Jae-Chul Jung, Jeongrai Lee, Hwan-Soo Yoo
    Journal of Life Science.2012; 22(12): 1697.     CrossRef
  • The Prevalence, Awareness and Treatment of High Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Korean Adults Without Coronary Heart Diseases - The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005 -
    Sun-Ja Choi, Sung-Hee Park, Kwang-Soo Lee, Hyun-Young Park
    Korean Circulation Journal.2012; 42(2): 86.     CrossRef
  • Administration of Triticum aestivum Sprout Water Extracts Reduce the Level of Blood Glucose and Cholesterol in Leptin Deficient ob/ob Mice
    Sun-Hee Lee, Sung-Won Lim, Nguyen Van Mihn, Jung-Mu Hur, Bong-Joon Song, Young-Mi Lee, Hoi-Seon Lee, Dae-Ki Kim
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2011; 40(3): 401.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Namhae Specialized Crops Water Extract on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a Cholesterol Diet
    Jung-Hye Shin, Min-Jung Kang, Seung-Mi Yang, Soo-Jung Lee, Nak-Ju Sung
    Korean journal of food and cookery science.2011; 27(5): 599.     CrossRef
In vivo Corneal Confocal Microscopy and Nerve Growth Factor in Diabetic Microvascular Complications.
Ji Sun Nam, Young Jae Cho, Tae Woong Noh, Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Min ho Cho, Hai Jin Kim, Ji Eun Yoon, Han Young Jung, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Hyung Keun Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(4):351-361.   Published online July 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.4.351
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
In vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM) is being recognized as a non-invasive, early diagnostic tool for diabetic neuropathy, for it provides a clear image of corneal subbasal nerve plexus in detail. Nerve growth factors (NGF) are believed to regulate peripheral and central nervous system, neuronal differentiation, and regeneration of damaged nerves, and their role in diabetic neuropathy is being emphasized these days. Moreover, NGFs and receptors are also expressed in retina and renal mesangial cells, suggesting their possible role in the common pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. We plan to examine corneal structures of diabetic patients and compare IVCCM with conventional tools and analyze their serum and tear NGF levels. METHODS: IVCCM, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and serum, urine, and tear samplings were done to 42 diabetic patients. From IVCCM, we measured corneal nerve density, branch, and tortuosity, total corneal/epithelial thickness, and the number of endothelial/keratocyte cells, and we checked patients' biochemical profiles and serum and tear NGF levels. RESULTS: Patients with more severe neuropathy had less corneal endothelial cells (3105 +/- 218 vs. 2537 +/- 142 vs. 2350 +/- 73/mm3 vs. 1914 +/- 465/mm3, P = 0.02), higher serum NGF (36 +/- 15 vs. 60 +/- 57.66 vs. 80 +/- 57.63 vs. 109 +/- 60.81 pg/mL, P = 0.39) and tear NGF levels (135.00 +/- 11.94 vs. 304.29 +/- 242.44 vs. 538.50 +/- 251.92 vs. 719.50 +/- 92.63 pg/mL, P = 0.01). There was a positive correlation between neuropathy and corneal nerve tortuosity (r2 = 0.479, P = 0.044) and negative correlation between neuropathy and endothelial cell count (r2 = -0.709, P = 0.002). Interestingly, similar changes were seen in other microvascular complications as well. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a possibility of using novel tools, IVCCM and NGF, as common diagnostic tools for diabetic microvascular complications, but it should be followed by a large population study.
Activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Isolated from Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.
Jisun Nam, Min Ho Cho, Jong Suk Park, Geun Taek Lee, Hai Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hun Joo Ha, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(3):261-273.   Published online May 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.3.261
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BACKGROUND
We evaluated the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox-sensitive transcription factors in isolated peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: From 66 diabetic patients with or without diabetic nephropathy (Group III and II, respectively) and 49 normal control subjects (Group I), spontaneous and stimulated ROS levels, activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and specificity protein1 (Sp1) in PBMC, urinary and PBMC TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1), and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were measured. RESULTS: Spontaneous ROS was significantly higher in group III and II than group I (60.7 +/- 3.3 vs. 60.0 +/- 3.0 vs. 41.1 +/- 2.4%, respectively), and stimulated ROS were significantly higher in Group III compared to Group II (Increment of H2O2-induced ROS production: 21.8 +/- 2.2 vs. 11.1 +/- 2.0%, respectively; increment of PMA-induced ROS production 23.5 +/- 4.5 vs. 21.6 +/- 2.2%, respectively). The activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1, but not of Sp1, were significantly higher in Group III than in Group II (2.53 vs. 2.0 vs. 1.43-fold, respectively). Both PBMC- and urinary TGF-beta1 levels were higher in Group III than Group II (3.23 +/- 0.39 vs. 1.99 +/- 0.68 ng/mg in PBMCs, 16.88 +/- 6.84 vs. 5.61 +/- 1.57 ng/mL in urine, both respectively), and they were significantly correlated with activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and 24-hour UAE. CONCLUSIONS: Increased intracellular ROS generation in PBMCs of diabetic patients is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1, but not Sp1, and increased expression of TGF-beta1.
Relation between Cerebral Arterial Pulsatility and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Jong Suk Park, Chul Sik Kim, Hai Jin Kim, Ji Sun Nam, Tae Woong Noh, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Yul Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):347-354.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.347
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic patients have a 3-fold risk for cerebrovascular disease compared with nondiabetic controls. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of insulin resistance with pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral arteries in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We compared a group of 90 patients with stroke free, type 2 diabetes and an age- and sex-matched control group of 45 healthy subjects without diabetes. Diabetic patients were divided into 3 groups according to the ISI (insulin sensitivity index). We evaluated PI of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and insulin resistance determined by short insulin tolerance test. RESULTS: The PI was significantly higher in diabetic patients than that in healthy controls (P < 0.05), and also higher in patients with insulin resistance than that in insulin sensitive diabetic patients (P < 0.05). The PI of the MCA was significantly correlated with age (r= 0.465, P < 0.01), duration of diabetes (r = 0.264, P = 0.025), hypertension (r = 0.285, P = 0.015) and inversely correlated with insulin resistance (r = -0.359, P = 0.030).Multiple regression analysis was performed with PI as a dependent variable and insulin resistance as an independent variable along with known clinical risk factors. Age (beta = 0.393, P < 0.01) and duration of diabetes (beta = 0.274, P = 0.043) exhibited a significant independent contribution to PI. CONCLUSIONS: PI might be useful markers of the detection of diabetic cerebrovascular changes and insulin resistance, measured with short insulin tolerance test, showed correlations with PI, but age and duration of diabetes contributed independently to the variability in the PI.

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  • Factors Affecting Basilar Artery Pulsatility Index on Transcranial Doppler
    Ho Tae Jeong, Dae Sik Kim, Kun Woo Kang, Yun Teak Nam, Ji Eun Oh, Eun Kyung Cho
    The Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science.2018; 50(4): 477.     CrossRef
Effects of Pioglitazone on Cerebral Hemodynamics in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes.
Jong Suk Park, You Jung Lee, Chul Sik Kim, Hai Jin Kim, Jina Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Yul Lee, Hyeong Jin Kim, Young Jun Won, Hun Ju Ha, Hae Sun Kwak, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(2):96-103.   Published online March 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.2.96
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BACKGROUND
Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and pioglitazone has been reported to have antiatherogenic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pioglitazone affects carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and pulsatility index (PI) in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 40 type 2 diabetic patients were included and divided into two groups: the pioglitazone-treated group (pioglitazone 15 mg/day with gliclazide 80~320 mg/day for 12 weeks) (n = 20) and control group (gliclazide 80~320 mg/day for 12 weeks) (n = 20). The changes in lipid profile, insulin resistance, IMT, and PI were monitored to determine that pioglitazone improves cerebrovascular blood flow. RESULTS: The pioglitazone treatment significantly increased HDL-C, reduced triglyceride, insulin resistance and PI. IMT tended to decrease but the change was not significant. This study revealed that treatment with pioglitazone was associated with the improvement of cerebrovascular blood flow. CONCLUSIONS: Pioglitazone appears to be effective for the improvement of cerebrovascular blood flow in type 2 diabetic patients
Relationship of LDL Particle Size to IMT and Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic Adult.
Jina Park, Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Dol Mi Kim, Min Ho Cho, Jee Hyun Kong, Hai Jin Kim, Jeong Ho Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Rae Kim, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):333-343.   Published online July 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
The aims of this study were to investigate the predictor of the low density lipoprotein(LDL) particle size and the relationship of the LDL particle size to the levels of insulin resistance and the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy Koreans. METHODS: The subjects were 47 and 89 clinically healthy males and females, aged between 32 and 70years, without medications that could potentially alter glucose and lipid metabolisms. The mean LDL particle size was determined by polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis(Lipoprint(r) LDL, Quantimetrix), the insulin resistance using a short insulin tolerance test kit, and the subclinical atherosclerosis from the carotid intima-media thickness. RESULTS: The LDL particle size was found to be significantly correlated with insulin resistance using a simple Pearson's correlation(r=0.233, P<0.01), but the independent predictors of the LDL particle size, as determined by a multiple stepwise regression analysis, were serum triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol level and age(beta=-0.403, P=< 0.001; beta=0.309, P=0.003; beta=-0.219, P=0.016, respectively). Significant relationships were found between an increasing IMT and the traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis: age, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure(r=0.490, P<0.001; r=-0.251, P<0.01; r=0.211, P<0.05; r=0.298, P<0.01; r=0.263, P<0.01, respectively). However, no significant correlation was found between an increasing IMT and the LDL particle size (r=-0.172, P=0.075). CONCLUSION: The best predictors for the LDL particle size were the serum TG level, HDL cholesterol level and age. Insulin resistance was not found to be an independent predictor of the LDL particle size. Small dense LDL was not found to be a predictor of the IMT in healthy Koreans.
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus(Fasting Plasma Glucose by the ADA Criteria) and Impaired Fasting Glucose according to Anthropometric Characteristics and Dietary Habits: 1998 National Health and Nutrition Survey.
Chul Sik Kim, Eun Kyong Jeong, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Ji Sun Nam, Hai Jin Kim, Jee Hyun Kong, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Chung Mo Nam
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(2):151-166.   Published online March 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
The study is based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Korea(1998). With these data, we want to predict the prevalence of diabetes mellitus(DM) and impaired fasting glucose(IFG), By investigating anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake habits, we also wanted to analyze any significant correlation between those factors and the prevalences of DM and IFG. METHODS: The study group was comprised of 8,166 people, a representative group of Koreans, who had undergone a health check-up and food intake survey among the total 39,331 members of 12,189 families who were surveyed. RESULTS: The final results are as the follows. 1) The peak prevalence of DM was 15.92% among women in their sixties and 18.21% among men in their fifties, and that of IFG was found to be 16.27% of women in their seventies and 14.09% of men in their sixties. 2) When analyzing the eating habits and the prevalences of DM and IFG, we found that women with more glucose intake had a lesser risk of DM, but this was of no statistical significance. 3) In men, age, total cholesterol, triglyceride(TG), and hypertension(HTN) were revealed as meaningful factors and in women, age, TG, and HTN were revealed as meaningful factors. As to the IFG, in females, age and TG were meaningful factors, and in males, age, TG, the waist/hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) were meaningful factors. CONCLUSION: Although this study could not demonstrate meaningful correlation between diet habits and DM, the prevalence of IFG and the recent increase in the prevalence of DM in Koreans, owing to alterations in their diet habits, demands further organized group study for a better understanding of their relationship
Apolipoprotein E Genetic Polymorphism and Diabetic Microangiopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Chul Sik Kim, Dol Mi Kim, Min Ho Cho, Jina Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(6):511-520.   Published online December 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
The pathophysiological causes for the development and progression of diabetic microangiopathy are not well known, but the apo E genetic polymorphism has been proposed to be involved in the disease's development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the apo E genetic polymorphism and diabetic microangiopathy in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: One hundred eighteen patients with type 2 diabetes who had a duration of diabetes longer than 8 years were divided into the three apo E groups (the E2, E3 and E4 groups). The plasma levels of lipids were measured. The frequency of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy were compared among the three apo E genotype groups. RESULTS: The frequency of overt nephropathy was significantly greater for the apo E2 patients with diabetes (46.7%) than for the apo E3 (16.7%) or apo E4 patients (10.5%). Logistical regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of the apo E2 and apo E4 genotypes for the presence of overt nephropathy were 4.779 (P < 0.01) and 0.643 (P = 0.583), respectively. Plasma TG levels were significantly greater for the apo E2 patients. This study did not find any association between diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and apo E polymorphism. CONCLUSION: Apo E2 is a positive risk factor for diabetic nephropathy in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. TG may have an important role in diabetic nephropathy.
The Degree of Atherosclerosis and the Metabolic Characteristics according to the Abdominal Obesity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Ji Sun Nam, Dol Mi Kim, Soo Jee Yoon, Jae Hyun Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):377-391.   Published online October 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Many of the maturity-onset type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia in Korea are not associated with obesity. However, these patients are at risk for developing macrovascular complications such as atherosclerosis due to hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. The aims of this study were to compare the clinical and biochemical differences between the type 2 diabetic patients that are with and without abdominal obesity, and we also wished to investigate the degree of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in these patients. METHODS: Among 530 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, the percentages of under-weight (UW), normal-weight (NW), over-weight (OW) and obese (OB) (BMI <20, 20-25, 25-29.9 and > or =30, respectively) subjects were 8.9%, 62.1%, 25.1% and 3.9%, respectively. To evaluate the severity of their atherosclerosis, the coronary artery calcification (CAC) score was measured by electron beam computed tomography, and the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery and the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) were also measured. The Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was measured by the plasma glucose disappearance rate (kitt: %/min). RESULTS: 1. There were no differences in age, duration of DM and the HbA1c levels according to BMI for both the men and women, but the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly different among each group. Serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), fibrinogen, and fasting c-peptide levels, {excluding total cholesterol (TC)}, were also significantly different. The ISI, which is a marker for insulin resistance, as well correlated with the patients' BMI. Subjects having an with ISI above 2.5%/min were considered as having insulin resistance, and 28%, 60%, 68% and 75% of patients in the UW, NW, OW and OB groups, respectively, demonstrated insulin resistance. The visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area ratio and visceral fat area/thigh muscle area ratio also increased with BMI. 2. The median values of the WHR were 0.95 for the men and 0.91 for the women. There were no significant differences for age, BMI, duration of DM and HbA1c between patients with and without abdominal obesity, but the SBP, TG, HDL-C, FFA, fibrinogen and ISI were significantly different between those two groups. 3. For the OW group as well as the NW group, the carotid IMT, ABPI and CAC scores were significantly different between the patients with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were no differences between the NW group and the OW group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, those patients with abdominal obesity, regardless of their BMIs, have a higher prevalence for atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, compared to those patients without abdominal obesity. Therefore, it is important to screen for atherosclerosis and to manage it accordingly, for the patients with insulin resistance or abdominal obesity in order to decrease their risk of developing atherosclerotic events.
Role of Activation of NF- B and AP-1 by Oxidative Stress in Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients.
Chul Sik Kim, Geun Taek Lee, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Joo Young Nam, Jong Suk Park, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(4):255-264.   Published online August 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of NF- B activation and AP-1 by oxidative stress in atherosclerosis in diabetic patients by measuring the carotid intima-media thickness, intracellular ROS generation and activation of transcription factors, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). METHODS: Sixty-six patients (28 males, 38 females; age 56.1 13.4 years; duration of diabetes 115.7 83.4 months) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were selected for this study. The DM patients included in this study were divided into those with a normal carotid intima-media thickness (Group II) and those with an increased intima-media thickness (Group III). 57 healthy controls matched for age and sex with the DM patients (Group I) were randomly selected. Dichlorodifluorescein (DCF)-sensitive intracellular ROS was measured by fluorescent spectrometry. The activities of NF- B and AP-1 in PBMCs were measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: No differences were evident between the groups in terms of gender, age, BMI, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Spontaneous and H2O2 (or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, PMA) stimulated ROS were significantly higher in the PBMCs from the DM patients with an increased intima-media thickness (Group III) than in those without (Group II), and were also higher in the control group (Group I). Moreover, the activities of NF- B and AP-1 were significantly higher in Group III than in Groups I or II. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intracellular ROS generation, and NF- B and AP-1 activation in PBMCs strongly correlates with the carotid artery IMT. These clinical results suggest that increased oxidative stress in PBMCs may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in DM patients .
Frequency of Anti-GAD Antibody in Non-obese, Adult-onset Type 2 Diabetes in Korea and Clinical and Biological Characteristics According to Anti-GAD Antibody.
Chul Sik Kim, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(2):66-74.   Published online April 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Some of the characteristic features of diabetes mellitus in Korea are that 70-80% of patients are non-obese or adult-onset type, and type 1 diabetes is very rare. Occasionally, autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD) are found in typical, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients(T2DM). The role of the autoantibody to GAD in T2DM is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics between GAD-positive and GAD-negative non-obese, adult-onset diabetics in Korea. METHODS: A cohort of 428 type 2 diabetes patients was included. The measured autoantibodies to GAD were measured, and the C-peptide and HbA1c levels, anthropometric data(weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference), blood pressure and lipid profiles compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared to the antibody-negative group(n=374; 87.4%), patients with the anti-GAD antibody(n=54; 12.6%) had significantly lower C-peptide levels and were significantly younger. The anti GAD-positive group had a lower BMI, more frequently needed insulin supplements, and a lower prevalence of hypertension. There were no significant differences in gender and family history of diabetes between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of the autoantibody to GAD allowed the group with more deteriorated beta-cell function and more frequent need for insulin supplements, but a lower prevalence of obesity and hypertension to be determined.
A Case of Primary Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome in a Patient Suspected of Having an Insulinoma.
Sung Ju Lee, Jee Hyun Kong, Joo Young Nam, Jong Suk Park, Chul Sik Kim, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):45-50.   Published online February 1, 2004
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Insulin autoimmune syndrome consists of fasting hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and detectable insulin-binding antibodies in patients never been exposed to exogenous insulin. Most affected patients present with other autoimmune disorders, most often Graves' disease. A significant increase in the insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations and the presence of other anti organ antibodies are also observed. Awareness of insulin autoimmune syndrome hypoglycemia is important as this may produce severe neuroglycopenic symptoms, which may be confused with the presence of an insulinoma. The correct diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention in patients who are best treated with conservative support, watchful waiting, or in some cases, immunosuppressive therapy. Herein, a case of autoimmune insulin syndrome, suspected as being an insulinoma is reported.
A Case of Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient with Diabetes Presenting as Foot Ulcer.
Chul Sik Kim, Dae Hoon Song, Jina Park, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Young Kim, Hee Jung Yoon, Dol Mi Kim, Soo Jee Yoon, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(2):165-171.   Published online April 1, 2003
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Antiphospholipid syndrome is a disorder characterized by recurrent vascular thrombosis, pregnancy loss and thrombocytopenia, and the presence of the lupus anticoagulant or a positive anticardiolipin test. A link of antiphospholipid syndrome to diabetes mellitus has not been established. There have been no reports of large artery thrombosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome or diabetes mellitus. We present a case of an adult with large artery thrombosis, elevated anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant associated with diabetes. The patient was managed by successful primary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent implantation, with accompanying anticoagulation therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case where the occluded large artery was treated with primary stent implantation in primary antiphospholipid syndrome with diabetes mellitus
The Effect of Growth Hormone on Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerotic Risk Factors in Obese Patients with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Jae Hyun Nam, Soo Jee Yoon, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Sik Kim, Joo Young Nam, Jong Suk Park, Jina Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Suk Won Park, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(2):141-152.   Published online April 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance in visceral obesity constitutes a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetic patients can be improved by a decrease in the visceral fat and an increase in the skeletal muscle, which may influence the insulin sensitivity. Growth hormone (GH) accelerates lipolysis and promotes protein conservation. The effects of GH therapy, with diet restriction, on lipolysis and protein anabolism, were evaluated, which may change body composition, insulin resistance and atherosclerotic risk factors in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Sixteen obese type 2 diabetic patients (31~56yrs), who had high glucose levels (glucose 12.8+/-1.7 mmol/L, HbA1c 10.2+/-2.1%), were treated with recombinant human GH (GH; 1 unit/d, 5 times/week), diet restriction (25 kcal/kg ideal body weight/day) and exercise (250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks. They underwent anthropometric measurement, bioelectrical impedance for total body fat and lean body mass, as well as computed tomography, for visceral and subcutaneous fat, at the umbilicus and muscle area at the mid-thigh levels. All subjects underwent the test for GH response to hypoglycemia. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was measured using insulin tolerance tests (ITT). RESULTS: 1. The visceral fat area (VFA)/thigh muscle area (TMA) ratio was more decreased in the GH-treated group than in the control group, but there was no change of body weight. 2. The ISI was significantly increased in only the GH-treated group, which was negatively correlated with the VFA/TMA ratio. The serum free fatty acid, fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly decreased after the GH treatment. The serum glucose level and HbA1c remained unchanged during the GH therapy, but were significantly decreased after 3 months. 3. The total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were decreased in the GH treated group. 4. The insulin-like growth factor-I, fasting c-peptide and insulin level were all significantly increased after the GH treatment. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that in type 2 diabetic patients, with insulin resistance and uncontrolled blood sugar, GH treatment caused a decrease in the visceral fat and an increase in the muscle mass, which could result in the improvement of the ISI, atherosclerotic risk factors and dyslipidemia.

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