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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal


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Hak Chul Chang  (Chang HC) 3 Articles
Fetal Hyperinsulinemia and Ultrasonographic Measurement of Fetal Growth in Pregnancy Complicated by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
In Kwon Han, Chang Hoon Yim, Ho Yeon Jeong, Hak Chul Chang, Ki Ok Han, Hyun Ku Yoon, Park Jeong Eun, Soo Young Lee, Young Ho Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(4):506-517.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Recently we reported that the large for gestational age (LGA) fetus of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) had disproportionate growth characterized by larger abdominal circumference (AC) but similar biparietal diameter (BPD) at third trimester compared to the fetus of normal pregnant women. The AC of LGA fetus appeared to be accelerated after 33 weeks gestation, and measurement of AC could be an effective method for prediction of LGA. Thus this study was performed to find the relationship between fetal hyperinsulinemia and disproportionate growth and to find the highly sensitive index for prediction of LGA infant in GDM. METHODS: We prospectively studied ultrasono- graphic growth patterns at 30, 34, 38 gestational weeks in 20 women with GDM and 15 normal pregnant women. The ultrasonographic measurements of fetus included biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), mid-thigh circumference (MTC), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), mid-thigh subcutaneous fat thickness (MTFT), mid-upper arm subcutaneous fat thickness (MUAFT), fetal liver length (FLL), chest circumference (CC) and heart circumference (HTC). RESULTS: Compared to the fetus of normal pregnant women and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetus of GDM, LGA fetus of GDM had thicker MUAFT (3.9+0.9, 5.0+1.1, 5.6+1.7 mm, p=0.008) at 34 weeks, MUAFT (5.3+0.8, 5.6+0.9, 7.2+1.4 mm p=0.045) at 38 weeks and MTFT (5.2 +1.1, 5.5+0.8, 7.1+1.5 mm, p=0.019) at 38 weeks. They also had longer MUAC (120.3+9.9, 119.4+ 8.3, 138.7+11.2 mm, p=0.020) and CC(322.6+11.7, 324.4+15.7, 351.7+15.0mm, p=.025, respectively). There was a positive correlation between umbilical venous C-peptide concentration and birthweight (r=0.626, p=0.005) and symmetry index (r=0.523, p=0.03) of newborns. There was also a positive correlation between C-peptide concentration and MUAC (r=0.449, p=0.038) and MUAFT (r=0.426, p=0.045) in GDM group. CONCLUSION: The LGA fetus of women with GDM showed an accelerated growth of predominantly subcutaneous fat tissues that should be caused by the fetal hyperinsulinemia. Ultrasonographic measurement of subcutaneous tissues may be the most sensitive index for prediction of growth abnormalities in GDM at late gestation.
Prediction of Large for Gestational Age Infant in Women with Gestational Age Infant in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Yltrasound Examination.
In Kwon Han, Hun Kee Min, Chang Hoon Yim, Ho Yeon Jeong, Hak Chul Chang, Ki Ok Han, Hyun Ku Yoon, Jeong Eun Park, Jae Eun Park, So Ra Park, Soo Young Lee, Young Ho Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(3):326-335.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In pregnancies complicated by diabetes, fetal hyperinsulinemia increases the deposition of fat, protein and glycogen in insulin-sensitive tissues leading to macrosomia, characterized by shoulder and truncal obesity. This may result in a shoulder dystocia, birth injury or fetal asphyxia. Thus, antenatal prediction of a large fetus for gestational age (LGA) can provide important information for the prevention of obstetric and perinatal complications. However, the measurement of materrml blood glucose concentration has yielded a low sensitivity for the prediction of LGA infants. This study was performed to determine whether fetal ultrasound examination could establish the onset of accelerated fetal growth in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to find the ultrasound indices for prediction of LGA infant. METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 77 women with GDM who had a singleton, and 156 women with a negative screen for GDM matched for age, height, and weight. All subjects had an early ultrasound examination before 14 weeks, assuring accurate dating and did not have any other medical condition that might affect fetal growth. Two ultrasound measurements including biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were performed at the 2nd trimester (24.7+2.7 vs. 24.1+2.4 wks, p>0.05) and the 3rd trimester (35.0+1.9 vs. 35.3+1.3 wks,p>0.05, respectively). RESULTS: Although gestational age at delivery of GDM group was earlier than the control group (39.0 +1.4 vs. 39.7+1.1, p<0.01), birth weight and frequency of LGA infant were similar between two groups (3204+439 vs. 3288+371 g, p>0.05; 27.3% vs. 20.5%, p>0.05, respectively). However, the LGA subgroup of GDM had a larger AC and longer FL at the 3rd trimester compared to the appropriate gestational age (AGA) subgroup and control group. The AC of LGA subgroup of GDM appeared to be accelerated at 33 weeks gestation compared to the control group. When the upper limit of 95% confidential interval of AC of the control group was used for a cutoff value for predicting LGA in GDM at the 3rd trimester, sensitivity and specificity was 71% and 78%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prediction of LGA infant in women with GDM might be achieved by an ultrasound examination of fetal AC at the 3rd trimester, especially after 33 weeks gestation.
The Frequency of ICA and anti-GAD Antibody in Korean IDDM and NIDDM Patients.
Kyung Soo Ko, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee, Nan Hee Kim, Dong Seop Choi, Sung Hee Ihm, Sung Woo Park, Chul Hee Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Hak Chul Chang, Byoung Doo Rhee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):312-319.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It has been suggested that the clinical and immunological characteristics of diabetes mellitus in Koreans are different from those of Caucasians. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of autoimmune markers in Korean adults with IDDM and recent-onset NIDDM. METHODS: Seventy-seven Korean adults with IDDM and 245 recently(within 2 years) diagnosed NIDDM were included in the study. Islet cell cytoplasmic antibody was measured by immunohistochemical method, and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibody was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: 1) The prevalence of ICA, anti-GAD antibody positivity was 27% and 40% in IDDM patients, and 5% and 4% in recent-onset NIDDM patients, respectively. 2) The prevalence of ICA positivity in IDDM patients decreased from 42% within one year to 21% over one year after clinical onset of disease. On the other hand, the positivity of anti-GAD antibody did not change according to the duration of diabetes. 3) The prevalence of ICA tends to be lower in IDDW patients with low serum C-peptide concentrations. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-GAD antibody was not different according to sernm C-peptide levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the prevalence of ICA and antii-GAD antibody was lower in Korean adult IDDM and recent-onset NIDDM patients than that in Caucasians.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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