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Gang Seo Pak  (Pak GS) 2 Articles
Relationship between Endothelial-dependent/-independent Vasodilation and Carotid Intimal- media Thickness in Newly-diagnosed Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Jung Ho Choi, Kyung Wan Min, Hyo Jeong Kim, Bo kyung Koo, Chae Young Lim, Hyun Jin Kim, Gang Seo Pak, Kyung Ah Han, Eung Jin Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(6):498-506.   Published online November 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.6.498
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The relative effect of diabetes on the risk of cardiovascular disease in Asian population is much the same as that in Western populations. Although multiple atherosclerotic risk factors have been documented in Asia, precise estimates of vascular reactivity might provide more critical informations for the prevention and the control of diabetes-related cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aims of this study were to estimate the vascular reactivity directly and evaluate its relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intimal-media thickness (IMT) in newly-diagnosed Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We measured flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EID) of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasonography in total of 121 (M; N = 68, F; N = 53) diabetic patients. We assessed conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as age, smoking, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia or family history of cardiovascular disease and analyzed the association among FMD/EID with cardiovascular risk factors, carotid IMT or the total number of risk factors. RESULTS: The mean values of age, smoking, BMI, waist, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were 51.2 +/- 12.3 years, 11.0 +/- 15.8 pack years, 25.0 +/- 3.2 kg/m2, 86 +/- 9 cm, 123 +/- 16 mmHg and 79 +/- 12 mmHg. The mean values of HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were 8.4 +/- 2.0%, 166 +/- 51 mg/dL, 187 +/- 37 mg/dL, 166 +/- 143 mg/dL, 114 +/- 30 mg/dL and 46 +/- 12 mg/dL. FMD and EID were estimated by 6.1 +/- 2.8% and 16.6 +/- 5.6% respectively. The mean/maximal carotid IMT were 0.63 +/- 0.12/0.76 +/- 0.16 mm and the number of risk factors besides diabetes mellitus were 2.3 +/- 1.3. After adjusting age, FMD was associated only with smoking, but EID was associated with smoking, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, mean/maximal carotid IMT and number of risk factors by partial correlations. Age, smoking and EID were independent risk variables for carotid IMT, analyzed by multiple regression test. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that impaired vascular reactivity detected by EID is closely related to carotid IMT, an useful surrogate marker for atherosclerosis, in newly-diagnosed Korean type 2 diabetic patients.
Therapeutic Efficacy of Combined Therapy with Once Daily Insulin Glargine and Once Daily Glimepiride in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Ji Young Park, Hyo Jeong Kim, Bo Kyung Koo, Hyun Jin Kim, Gang Seo Pak, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min, Eung Jin Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(5):391-401.   Published online September 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.5.391
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Once daily injection and 24 hour lasting glucose lowering effect of insulin glargine had recently changed a perception about the early insulin treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. This study was performed to investigate therapeutic efficacy of combined therapy with insulin glargine and glimepiride in Korean type 2 diabetic patients, who had received oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) or conventional insulin therapy. METHODS: Total of 192 patients who needed to change the previous therapy because of uncontrolled diabetes or hypoglycemia were included and followed for about 6 months. Two groups of prior treatment modality were analyzed; OHA group (n = 54, 28.1%), conventional insulin therapy group in combination with or without OHA group (n = 138, 71.9%). The primary end point was changes in HbA1c according to baseline characteristics such as prior treatment modality, HbA1C, c-peptide, duration of diabetes mellitus, body mass index and prior used conventional insulin doses. Secondary end point was the dose conversion ratio of insulin glargine to prior used insulin in patients who had one or two insulin therapy. We also evaluated the level of the patients' satisfaction on the glucose lowering effects and the convenience for use of device. RESULTS: The differences of HbA1c according to prior treatment groups were -0.78 +/- 1.76 % in OHA group and 0.07 +/- 1.44 % in conventional insulin group with or without OHA group. The HbA1c improved better when baseline HbA1c was higher than 9%, c-peptide was higher than 0.6 ng/mL, duration of diabetes was shorter than 15 years, BMI was lower than 30 kg/m2 and prior conventional insulin dose was less than 30 IU. However, those effects were attenuated in subjects having duration of diabetes longer than 16 years, BMI higher than 30 kg/m2 and prior insulin dose more than 40 IU. Dose conversion ratio of the insulin glargine to prior insulin was 0.78 +/- 0.30 and showed a tendency to increase in patients who have prior insulin dose more than 40 IU. The scores of the patients' subjective satisfaction on insulin glargine were all high, irrespective of the changes of HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Once daily injection of insulin glargine and oral ingestion of glimepiride can be recommended as one of starting insulin regimen for patients who are not adequately controlled by OHA alone or as once daily regimen for whom treated with one or two conventional insulin therapy.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal