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Eun Seok Kang  (Kang ES) 16 Articles
Effects of Walking and Physical Activity on Glucose Regulation among Type 2 Diabetics.
Yoonsuk Jekal, Mi Kyung Lee, Eun Sung Kim, Ji Hye Park, Hyun Ji Lee, Seung Jin Han, Eun Seok Kang, Hyun Chul Lee, So Hun Kim, Justin Y Jeon
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(1):60-67.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.1.60
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  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Physical activity, especially walking is strongly recommended to control blood glucose among type 2 diabetic patients. Furthermore, physical activity is one of the most important tools to prevent secondary diabetes complications among type 2 diabetic patients such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy etc. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between the level of walking and physical activity and glucose control among Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 250 patients with type 2 diabetes (98 males and 152 females) were recruited (mean age = 62.1 +/- 10.2 years) in the current study. The height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured, and the level of physical activity and total walking hour were measured by physical activity scale for elderly (PASE). High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose and oral glucose tolerance test, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin, hemoglobin A1c were measured. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential covariates such as age, education, occupation income, smoking, and drinking, male patients who spent least time in walking were more likely to have 2 hour serum glucose level in oral glucose tolerance above 200 mg/dL than counterparts who spent most time in walking with age adjusted (Relative Risk (RR) = 11.75, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.94-71.00). Male patients who were in the least active group were 5.92 time (95% CI = 1.39-25.28) more likely to have 2 hour serum glucose level in oral glucose tolerance over 200 mg/dL than counterparts in the most active group. However, there was no significant finding in females. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that physical activity and walking are effective method to maintain glucose tolerance among type 2 diabetic male patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 호남권 지역주민의 건강행태와 만성질환 관리현황
    선아 김, 정은 이
    Public Health Weekly Report.2024; 17(2): 46.     CrossRef
  • A Study Analyzing the Relationship among Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), Obesity Index, Physical Activity, and Beverage and Alcohol Consumption Frequency in 20s and 30s:The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2013-2015
    Yujin Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim
    The Korean Journal of Community Living Science.2022; 33(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Travel Guidance for People with Diabetes
    Izadi Morteza, Hosseini Mahboobeh Sadat, Pazham Hossein
    International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health.2015; 3(4): 149.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes According to Gender among Korean Employees
    Sang-A Kim, Woong-Sub Park, Su Jeong Yu, Young Ran Chae, Donghee Choi
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(11): 7589.     CrossRef
  • Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults
    Dong Hoon Lee, Yoon Myung Kim, Yoonsuk Jekal, Sukyung Park, Kyong-Chol Kim, Masayo Naruse, Sun Hyun Kim, Sang-Hwan Kim, Ji-Hye Park, Mi Kyung Lee, Sang Hui Chu, Justin Y. Jeon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(2): 132.     CrossRef
  • Association between Obesity and Physical Fitness, and Hemoglobin A1c Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults
    Yoonsuk Jekal, Mi-Kyung Lee, Sukyung Park, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jun-Young Kim, Jung-Ui Kang, Masayo Naruse, Sang-Hwan Kim, Sun-Hyeon Kim, Sang Hui Chu, Sang-Hoon Suh, Justin Y Jeon
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(3): 182.     CrossRef
Protective Effects of Lithospermic Acid B on Diabetic Nephropathy in OLETF Rats Comparing with Amlodipine and Losartan.
Eun Seok Kang, Beom Seok Kim, Chul Hoon Kim, Gi Ho Seo, Seung Jin Han, Sung Wan Chun, Kyu Yeon Hur, Chul Woo Ahn, Hunjoo Ha, Mankil Jung, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(1):10-20.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.1.10
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Lithospermic acid B (LAB), an active component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhizae, has been reported to have renoprotective effects in type 1 and type 2 diabetic animal models. We examined the effects of LAB on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy compared with amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, and losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, in Otsuka Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: LAB (20 mg/kg), amlodipine (10 mg/kg), or losartan (10 mg/kg) was given orally once daily to 10-week-old male OLETF rats for 28 weeks. RESULTS: None of LAB, losartan, and amlodipine exhibited effects on blood glucose levels. Treatment with amlodipine or losartan resulted in similar reductions in blood pressure; however, LAB was less effective in lowering blood pressure. Albuminuria was markedly suppressed by losartan and LAB, but not by amlodipine. LAB treatment decreased levels of renal lipid peroxidation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LAB has beneficial effects on the diabetic nephropathy in OLETF rats by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation as potent as losartan.

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  • An Overview on Naturally Occurring Phytoconstituent: Lithospermic Acid
    Bhupesh Chander Semwal, Amjad Hussain, Sonia Singh
    The Natural Products Journal.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
In vivo Corneal Confocal Microscopy and Nerve Growth Factor in Diabetic Microvascular Complications.
Ji Sun Nam, Young Jae Cho, Tae Woong Noh, Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Min ho Cho, Hai Jin Kim, Ji Eun Yoon, Han Young Jung, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Hyung Keun Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(4):351-361.   Published online July 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.4.351
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
In vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM) is being recognized as a non-invasive, early diagnostic tool for diabetic neuropathy, for it provides a clear image of corneal subbasal nerve plexus in detail. Nerve growth factors (NGF) are believed to regulate peripheral and central nervous system, neuronal differentiation, and regeneration of damaged nerves, and their role in diabetic neuropathy is being emphasized these days. Moreover, NGFs and receptors are also expressed in retina and renal mesangial cells, suggesting their possible role in the common pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. We plan to examine corneal structures of diabetic patients and compare IVCCM with conventional tools and analyze their serum and tear NGF levels. METHODS: IVCCM, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and serum, urine, and tear samplings were done to 42 diabetic patients. From IVCCM, we measured corneal nerve density, branch, and tortuosity, total corneal/epithelial thickness, and the number of endothelial/keratocyte cells, and we checked patients' biochemical profiles and serum and tear NGF levels. RESULTS: Patients with more severe neuropathy had less corneal endothelial cells (3105 +/- 218 vs. 2537 +/- 142 vs. 2350 +/- 73/mm3 vs. 1914 +/- 465/mm3, P = 0.02), higher serum NGF (36 +/- 15 vs. 60 +/- 57.66 vs. 80 +/- 57.63 vs. 109 +/- 60.81 pg/mL, P = 0.39) and tear NGF levels (135.00 +/- 11.94 vs. 304.29 +/- 242.44 vs. 538.50 +/- 251.92 vs. 719.50 +/- 92.63 pg/mL, P = 0.01). There was a positive correlation between neuropathy and corneal nerve tortuosity (r2 = 0.479, P = 0.044) and negative correlation between neuropathy and endothelial cell count (r2 = -0.709, P = 0.002). Interestingly, similar changes were seen in other microvascular complications as well. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a possibility of using novel tools, IVCCM and NGF, as common diagnostic tools for diabetic microvascular complications, but it should be followed by a large population study.
Activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Isolated from Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.
Jisun Nam, Min Ho Cho, Jong Suk Park, Geun Taek Lee, Hai Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hun Joo Ha, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(3):261-273.   Published online May 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.3.261
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BACKGROUND
We evaluated the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox-sensitive transcription factors in isolated peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: From 66 diabetic patients with or without diabetic nephropathy (Group III and II, respectively) and 49 normal control subjects (Group I), spontaneous and stimulated ROS levels, activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and specificity protein1 (Sp1) in PBMC, urinary and PBMC TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1), and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were measured. RESULTS: Spontaneous ROS was significantly higher in group III and II than group I (60.7 +/- 3.3 vs. 60.0 +/- 3.0 vs. 41.1 +/- 2.4%, respectively), and stimulated ROS were significantly higher in Group III compared to Group II (Increment of H2O2-induced ROS production: 21.8 +/- 2.2 vs. 11.1 +/- 2.0%, respectively; increment of PMA-induced ROS production 23.5 +/- 4.5 vs. 21.6 +/- 2.2%, respectively). The activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1, but not of Sp1, were significantly higher in Group III than in Group II (2.53 vs. 2.0 vs. 1.43-fold, respectively). Both PBMC- and urinary TGF-beta1 levels were higher in Group III than Group II (3.23 +/- 0.39 vs. 1.99 +/- 0.68 ng/mg in PBMCs, 16.88 +/- 6.84 vs. 5.61 +/- 1.57 ng/mL in urine, both respectively), and they were significantly correlated with activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and 24-hour UAE. CONCLUSIONS: Increased intracellular ROS generation in PBMCs of diabetic patients is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1, but not Sp1, and increased expression of TGF-beta1.
The Relationship between Visceral & Subcutaneous Fat and Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):207-216.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.207
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BACKGROUND
Visceral obesity is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Small dense (sd) LDL is closely associated with CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentration. METHODS: 264 type 2 diabetic patients underwent ultrasonography to estimate visceral & subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentrations were measured. RESULTS: BMI, total cholesterol, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in male than those in lowest tertile. BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in female than those in lowest tertile. But sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were not different among three groups based on the tertile of subcutaneous fat length in male and female. Visceral fat length was correlated with sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, but negatively with percentage of large buoyant LDL-C and HDL-C after adjustment of age, sex and BMI. Subcutaneous fat length was not correlated with sd LDL-C and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C and LDL-C. CONCLUSION: The association between visceral fat length and sd LDL-C could be a factor that explains the association between visceral obesity and CVD.
The long term effects of rosiglitazone on serum lipid concentration and body weight.
Wan Sub Shim, Mi Young Do, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(1):17-24.   Published online January 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.1.17
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Although rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer, is known to have beneficial effects on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, it has adverse effects on the increment of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and body weight in some studies. Such adverse effects of rosiglitazone on the serum lipid profiles and body weight seem to be attributed to the fact that most studies with rosiglitazone are limited to a short period of follow up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of rosiglitazone on the serum lipid levels and body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated fasting serum glucose, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, HDL-C and body weight at baseline and every three months after rosiglitazone usage (4mg/d) in 202 type 2 diabetic patients. RESULTS: TC levels had increased maximally at 3 months and thereafter decreased, but were significantly higher at 18 months than those at baseline. LDL-C levels from the first 3 months to 12 months were significantly higher than those at baseline, but after 15 months, LDL-C concentration was not significantly different from the basal LDL-C concentration. HDL-C levels had increased after first 3 months and the increment of HDL-C concentration were maintained. The increment of HDL-C was more prominent in patients with low basal HDL-C concentration than in patients with high basal HDL-C concentration. Body weight from 3 months to 18 months were higher than that at baseline, but after 3 months, body weight did not increase furthermore significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse effects on lipid concentration and body weight of rosiglitazone may attenuate after long term usage of rosiglitazone.
Clinical Characteristics of Non-obese, Adult-onset Diabetes Requiring Insulin Treatment.
Se Eun Park, Wan Sub Shim, Mi Young Do, Eun Seok Kang, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):557-565.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical characteristics of non-obese, adult-onset diabetes requiring insulin treatment and to compare the different characteristics of the three groups categorized according to diabetes classification. METHODS: Total 128 diabetic patients who were non-obese (BMI < 25kg/m2) and had been diagnosed with diabetes after 20 years old, requiring insulin treatment were enrolled in the study. We divided the patients into three groups : 56 patients with type 1, 37 with unclassifiable, and 35 with type 2 diabetes. The type of diabetes was assigned by comparing serum C-peptide concentration and clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: Type 2 and unclassifiable diabetes had no differences in BMI, the interval to use insulin, daily insulin dose, the level of HDL cholesterol and the positive rate for GAD Ab, but type 1 diabetes didn't. However, type 1 diabetes and unclassifiable group was lower prevalence of microvascular complications than type 2 diabetes (retinopathy 38.2, 52.8, 84.8 % ; nephropathy 37.7, 36.7, 74.2 % ; neuropathy 36.7, 36.7, 72.7 %, P<0.05). The prevalence of macrovascular complications was higher in the order of type 1, unclassifiable, and type 2 diabetes (11.1, 29.4, 72.7 %, respectively, all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical characteristics were similar between unclassifiable and type 2 diabetes, but the prevalence of microvascular complication in unclassifiable group had no significant difference compared with type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of macrovascular complications was significantly higher in the order of type 1, unclassifiable, and type 2 diabetes.
The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):548-556.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and with characteristic dyslipidemia which is composed of high level of triglyceride, low level of HDL-C and increased small dense LDL (sd-LDL). Recently a simple method was established for the quantification of sd-LDL-C using heparin-magnesium precipitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the sd-LDL-C and the number of components of MS in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 287 type 2 diabetic patients, who did not use the medication which can affect the concentration of lipid such as statin, fibrate, thiazolidinediones and corticosteroid, were enrolled. The NCEP-ATP III criteria of MS were used except obesity. RESULTS: Although LDL-C concentrations were not changed according to the number of components of MS, absolute level and percentage of sd-LDL-C were increased. Although LDL-C concentrations were not different between presence and absence of MS, in the case of MS, absolute level and percentage of sd-LDL-C were higher than not in the case of MS. Sd-LDL-C concentration was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and percentage of sd-LDL-C, and negatively with HDL-C. The percentage of sd-LDL-C was positively correlated with total cholesterol, triglyceride and sd-LDL-C, and negatively with HDL-C. CONCLUSION: The sd-LDL-C may a factor that explains the higher risk of CVD in diabetic patients with the MS.
The Association of Family History of Diabetes and Obesity in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Seung Jin Han, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):540-547.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. Type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic basis, and obesity is also known as a important risk factor for development of diabetes. The relative effects of obesity and family history of diabetes (FHx) to develop diabetes have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze the relative role of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in the newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients according to the presence of FHx and obesity. METHOD: We evaluated the presence of FHx, fasting and postprandial glucose, C-peptide and insulin in 219 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without the history of drug therapy from Jan. 2003 to Oct. 2004. RESULT: The mean age of patients was 54.7+/-10.2(yr) and the mean BMI was 25.5+/-3.0 kg/m2. The patients with FHx develop diabetes earlier than them without FHx. BMI, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, fasting C-peptide and HOMAIR value were not different between groups. But postprandial C-peptide, fasting insulin, postprandial insulin and HOMAbeta-cell value were significantly lower in patient with FHx than in them without FHx. Interestingly, obese (BMI > or = 25kg/m2) patients with FHx developed diabetes earlier than nonobese (BMI <25kg/m2) patients with FHx. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays an important role in the determination of the earlier onset of diabetes in patients with FHx. Intentional prevention of obesity may be an important means to prevent, at least delay, the onset of diabetes in the subjects with FHx.
The Association Between White Blood Cell Count and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Shin Ae Kang, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):460-468.   Published online September 1, 2005
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BACKGOUND: Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and inflammation is also closely associated with cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell count, which is a marker of systemic inflammation, has been found to correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the WBC count in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 606 patients (males 318, females 288, BMI 25.6+/-3.2 kg/m2 and duration of diabetes 4.8+/-5.9year) were enrolled. The WBC and differential counts, anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS: According to the quartiles of the WBC count, the number of components of metabolic syndrome and percentage of patients with metabolic syndrome were increased in the highest WBC count quartile. The WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts increased with increasing number of components of metabolic syndrome, but not that of the basophil count. The WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without. The WBC count was found to be positively correlated with the waist circumference(gamma=0.090), systolic blood pressure(gamma=0.090), diastolic blood pressure(gamma=0.104), triglyceride(gamma=0.252), insulin(gamma=0.168) and HOMAIR(gamma=0.170), but negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(gamma= -0.167)(P<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Chronic inflammation, as indicated by a higher than normal WBC count, may increased with the increasing number of components of metabolic syndrome.
Association of Haplotype Combinations of Calpain-10 Gene Polymorphisms and the Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes.
Eun Seok Kang, Hye Joo Kim, Sung Min Myoung, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Moonsuk Nam
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):451-459.   Published online September 1, 2005
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OBJECTIVE: Patients with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The combinations of the haplotype created by the alleles of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): SNP-43, SNP-19, and SNP-63 of the Calpain 10 gene (CAPN10), have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in many populations. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the CAPN10 polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in Korean patients with T2DM. METHODS: Overall, 382 T2DM patients were enrolled in this study. All the subjects were genotyped according to CAPN10 SNP-43, SNP-19 and SNP-63. The restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used for the three SNPs. The baseline presence of the components of metabolic syndrome was determined. RESULTS: 265 (69.4 %) patients were found to have metabolic syndrome. Patients with the 111/121 haplotype combination showed a higher risk of hypertension than the other haplotype combinations (OR=2.334, P=0.010) and also had a significantly higher risk of having metabolic syndrome (OR=1.927, P=0.042). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest a role of the novel 111/121 haplotype combination created by the CAPN10 SNPs -43, -19 and -63 in the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of T2DM patients.
Clinical Meaning of Postprandial Insulin Secretory Function in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Se Eun Park, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):367-377.   Published online July 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Impaired pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postprandial insulin deficiency is closely related with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and insulin responses to meals, but most studies examining postprandial beta-cell responsiveness have been limited by the small number of type 2 diabetic patients examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate fasting and postprandial insulin secretions in relation to the duration of diabetes, BMI and glycemic control in a large number of patients with variable disease durations. METHODS: We evaluated the fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HbA1c, BMI, postprandial 2 hour glucose, insulin and C-peptide in 1,170(male 662, female 508, age 54.6+/-1.6 years, duration of diabetes 5.2+/-6.3 years, BMI 25.4+/-3.3kg/m(2)) type 2 diabetic patients. The delta C-peptide, delta insulin, fasting(M0) and postprandial(M1) pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness were also calculated. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their duration of diabetes, BMI, and fasting and postprandial C-peptide levels. After adjusting for age, sex and BMI, the correlation of diabetes and HbA1c were correlated parameters. RESULTS: In the group of patients whose duration of diabetes was longer than 10 years, the BMI, fasting, postprandial and delta C-peptide, and M0 and M1 were significantly lower, but age, fasting and postprandial glucose, as well as HbA1c were significantly higher than those in the other groups. There were no significant differences in the fasting and postprandial glucose and HbA1c according to their fasting C-peptide tertiles. However, in the group of patients with the highest postprandial C-peptide tertile, the fasting and postprandial glucose and HbA1c were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The duration of diabetes, after adjustment of age, sex and BMI, was negatively correlated with the fasting, postprandial and delta C-peptide, M0 and M1, but was positively correlated with the fasting and postprandial 2 hour glucose and HbA1c. The HbA1c after adjustment of age, sex and BMI, was positively correlated with duration of diabetes, and fasting and postprandial glucose, but was negatively correlated with fasting postprandial and delta C-peptide, M0 and M1. CONCLUSION: Although the fasting and postprandial insulin secretions were decreased with duration of diabetes, the decrease in the postprandial insulin secretion was more prominent. The postprandial pancreatic responsiveness may be a more important factor in predicting glycemic control in Korean type 2 diabetic patients than the fasting pancreatic responsiveness.
Protective Effects of Lithospermate B on Diabetic Nephropathy in OLETF Rat.
Hyun Joo Lee, Geun Taek Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Kyu Yeon Hur, Zheng Shan Zhao, Chul Woo Ahn, Hun Joo Ha, Man Kil Jung, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):322-332.   Published online July 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Magnesium lithospermate B(LAB), an active component isolated from Salvia milltiorrhizae, has been reported to have renoprotective effects in type 1 diabetic animal model. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of LAB on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty(OLETF) rat which is regarded as an animal model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ten microgram of LAB/kg or Vehicle(PBS) was given orally once daily to 10-week-old male OLETF rats and LETO rats for 40 weeks. Intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test was performed at 50 weeks. 24 hr urinary protein excretion amounts were measured. Lipid peroxidation, TGF-beta1 and ED-1 of renal cortex were measured. RESULTS: The mean body weight of LAB+OLETF was not significantly different from that of OLETF rats. LAB treatment decreased proteinuria, lipid peroxidation, and free fatty acid in OLETF rats without decrease in the plasma glucose concentration. Also, LAB inhibited the progression of glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial expansion. LAB effectively decreased ED-1 positive cells, ECM expansion, and TGF-beta1 level in the renal cortex of OLETF rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the beneficial effects of LAB on the diabetic renal damage in the OLETF rats may depend on a mechanism of decreasing oxidative stress. LAB might be a new therapeutic agent for the prevention of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes as well as type 1 diabetes.
Analysis of the Relative Importance of Insulin Resistance and Insulin Secretion Defect by Homeostasis Model Assessment in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(3):206-214.   Published online May 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defects in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, the relative importance of insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean type 2 diabetic patients has not been well characterized in any study that has included a large number of subjects. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of insulin sensitivity and the function of the beta cell in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We applied the HOMA model to 1,162 type 2 diabetic patients (654 males and, 508 females) who did not use insulin and we assessed HOMAIR and HOMAbetacell & its relation to the other parameters. RESULTS: The HOMAIR of Korean type 2 diabetic patients was 2.29(range: 0.31~37.17) and the HOMAbetacell of Korean type 2 diabetic patients was 32.17(range: 1.04~1310.79). The HOMAIR of Korean type 2 diabetic male patients was 2.15(range: 0.31~16.6) and that of Korean type 2 diabetic female patients was 2.47(range: 0.36~37.17). The HOMAbetacell of Korean type 2 diabetic male patients was 30.1(range: 1.04~462.34) and that of Korean type 2 diabetic female patients was 35.42(range: 2.60~1310.79). The HOMAIR and HOMAbetacell were significantly higher in females than males. There was no significant correlation between HOMAIR and age, and the duration of diabetes, but there was significant correlation between HOMAIR and BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c and the fasting insulin. There was no significant correlation between age and HOMAbetacell. However, there was significant correlation between HOMAbetacell and BMI, the duration of diabetes, the fasting glucose, HbA1c and the fasting insulin. The longer the duration of diabetes, the more the HOMAbetacell was decreased but there was no change of HOMAIR with respect to the duration of diabetes. As expected, the subjects with a lower HOMAIR and a higher HOMAbetacell had the best glycemic control. Those with a higher HOMAIR and lower HOMAbetacell had the worst glycemic control although they had taken larger amount of oral hypoglycemic agents. Interestingly, the patients with a lower HOMAIR and higher HOMAbetacell had better glycemic control than those patients with a higher HOMAIR and lower HOMAbetacell. CONCLUSION: Both insulin secretion and insulin resistance are important in glycemic control but it seems that insulin secretion is a more important factor in glycemic control than insulin resistance in the Korean type 2 diabetic patients
The Effects of Lifestyle Modification on the Metabolic Parameters of Type 2 Diabetes.
So Hun Kim, Eun Seok Kang, So Young Park, Suk Jeong Lee, Mi Jin Kim, Ji Soo Yoo, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):441-451.   Published online October 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Lifestyle modification is known to have positive effects on glycemic control and improving the cardiovascular risk factors. Although lifestyle modification is considered to be important in treating diabetic patients, there are few studies concerning the direct effect of lifestyle modification on the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of lifestyle modification on glycemic control, lipid profiles, body indices, serum adiponectin and the hsCRP levels for patients with T2DM in Korea. METHODS: Twenty two patients with T2DM who had no medication changes for the recent 3 months and who also had a HbA1c> or =7.0% were enrolled in a lifestyle modification program. These patients visited Severance Hospital Diabetes Center once every week for 12 weeks, and they were educated about exercise and diet control. Their metabolic and anthropometric parameters were compared with 22 control T2DM patients who were not in the program. RESULTS:Lifestyle modification group patients showed significant decrements in HbA1c (-0.62 +/- 1.29 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.91%, p=0.044), total cholesterol (-0.57 +/- 0.54 vs. -0.06 +/- 0.61 mmol/l, p=0.007), LDL cholesterol (-0.57 +/- 0.62 vs. 0.02 +/- 0.59 mmol/l, p=0.003), body weight (-1.5 +/- 19 vs. 0.2 +/- 1.5 kg, p=0.005) and BMI (-0.6 +/- 0.7 vs 0.0 +/- 0.6 kg/m2, p=0.003) compared with the control subjects. HOMAIR, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and hsCRP levels showed no significant difference compared to the control subjects. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle modification in Korean T2DM patients had positive effects on weight loss, glycemic control, and lipid profiles. These changes imply that lifestyle modification will be helpful for managing DM and its complications.
Polymorphism of the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1alpha Gene in the Early-onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with a Strong Family History in Korea.
Eun Seok Kang, Si Hoon Lee, Zheng Shan Zhao, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kab Bum Huh, Young Soo Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):328-335.   Published online October 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a genetically heterogenous subtype of type 2 diabetes characterized by an early onset, usually before 25 years of age, autosomal dominant inheritance and a primary defect in insulin secretion. Mutation of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene is known to be a cause of MODY3. This study was carried out to reveal whether HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism is a common cause of early-onset type 2 diabetes and MODY in the Korean population. METHODS: Members of 12 pedigrees families with MODY and early-onset of type 2 diabetes were selected for the mutation detection. All of the families involved had at least two members with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before the age of 40 years, where the diabetes was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with at least 3 generations of diabetic subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole- blood samples. The 10 exons and the promotor of the HNF-1alpha gene were sequenced. RESULTS: In codon 17 of exon 1, 2 of the 10 control subjects and 5 of the 12 patients had nucleotide replacement where the CTC nucleotide was replaced by the CTG (p=0.381). This is a silent mutation where both the CTC and CTG code have the same amino acid leucine. In codon 27 of exon 1, 5 patients had a silent mutation, where the codon ATC is replaced by CTC and the amino acid changes from isoleucine to leucine, but no mutation was found in the control group (p=0.040). In codon 459 of exon 7, 2 of the controls and 3 of the patient group had a silent mutation (CTG -> TTG) that were both codon code leucine (p=1.000). Another missense mutation was observed in codon 487 of exon 7. Nucleotide AGC (serine) was replaced by AAC (asparagines). This mutation was observed in 5 control subjects and 10 patients (p=0.172). CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal a new HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism. We conclude that the HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism does not play a major role in the early-onset of type 2 diabetes with a strong family history in Korea.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal