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Eon Kyung Hong  (Hong EK) 2 Articles
Clinical Characteristics and Analysis of Risk Factor for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Diabetic Patient.
Kwang Hyuk Park, Seong Bo Yoon, Min Ho Jo, Eon Kyung Hong, Seong Jin Lee, In Kyung Jeong, Chul Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Hyun Kyu Kim, Jac Myoung Yu, Doo Man Kim, Sung Hee Lim, Moon Ki Choi, Hyung Jun Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Heung Young Oh, Jin Bae Kim, Il Hyun Baek, Myung Seok Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):358-366.   Published online July 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD) has been reported in diabetic patient. However, the exact mechanisms of GERD in diabetic patient have not been described. In several studies, diabetic neuropathy and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system have been suggested as risk factors of GERD. However, there have been no studies on the exact prevalence or risk factors of GERD in Korean diabetic patients. Therefore, the prevalence of GERD in Korean diabetics patients was examined, and the risk factors for GERD, the differences in symptoms between GERD and non-GERD patients, and the degree of symptom relief after treatment were also analyzed. METHODS: A total of 310 diabetic patients, who underwent an upper gastroendoscopy due to diverse gastrointestinal symptoms, between April 2001 and November 2003, were enrolled. The diagnostic criteria or GERD included the upper gastroendoscopic view, which was analyzed using the scale of 'The Los Angeles Classification of Esophagus' from grades A to D. The prevalence and symptoms of GERD patients and the variable risk factors, such as blood glucose level, smoking and diabetic neuropathy, were examined. RESULTS: 1) There was an 18.4% prevalence of GERD in diabetic patients. 2) The clinical characteristics, including sex, age and serum lipid level, of the GERD group were not significantly different to those of the control group. However, the duration of smoking, the fasting and postprandial 2-hour serum glucose levels, and the diabetic neuropathy significantly affected GERD, 3) The main symptoms of the GERD group were dyspepsia(47.4%) and heart burn(26.3%). 4) The degree of subjective symptom relief in the GERD group after treatment with the proton pump inhibitor, pantoprazole(40mg), was remarkably lower than in the control group for approximately 1 month. CONCLUSION: In this study, the prevalence of GERD in diabetic patient was higher than that found in the general population which suggests that GERD in diabetic patient was due to a poorly controlled serum glucose level and diabetic neuropathy. The chief complaints pertaining to gastrointestinal symptoms in both study groups were non-specific. However, the recovery from symptoms in the GERD group was lower than the control group following drug therapy. The causes of the lower response rate in the GERD group will need to be examined in further studies.
The Influence of Metabolic Syndrome on the Intima-Medial Thickness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes.
Kwang Pyo Son, Young Je Chae, Tae Yu Lee, In Kyung Jeong, Mina Hur, Gu Young Jo, Young Lee, Seong Jin Lee, Chul Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Eon Kyung Hong, Hyun Kyu Kim, Jae Myoung Yu, Doo Man Kim, Sung Hee Lim, Moon Ki Choi, Hyung Jun Yoo, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):392-406.   Published online October 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is usually present in type 2 DM (T2DM), and it is associated with atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to exam the influence of MS on the intima-medial thickness(IMT) and the cardiovascular risk factors for type 2 diabetic patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed on 82 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 84 healthy controls. MS was defined according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. Those subjects with any history of cerebro vascular accident, ischemic heart disease or acute inflammation were excluded. The cardiovascular risk factors (hsCRP, lipid profile, homocysteine, and uric acid), the status of glucose metabolism (HbA1c, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR), the diabetic microvascular complications and the IMT at both common carotid arteries were measured. RESULTS: 1) For patients with T2DM, the levels of waist circumference, blood pressure, TG (1.7+/-1.4 vs 2.2+/-1.4 mmol/L), HDL-C (1.5+/-0.4 vs. 1.3+/-0.3 mmol/L), LDL-C (2.7+/-0.7 vs 3.1+/-0.9 mmol/L), TC/HDL-C (3.5 vs. 41), log of (hsCRP) (-0.11+/-0.4 vs 0.17+/-0.4), mean carotid IMT (0.63+/-0.12 vs. 0.74+/-0.12 mm) and max IMT (0.68+/-0.14 vs. 0.86+/-0.15 mm) were significantly different from the healthy control group. 2) The prevalence of MS in the T2DM groups was 64%. However, a decrease of the waist circumference, as measured by the modified Asian criteria, increased the crude prevalence of MS by up to 75%. 3) Diabetic patients with MS had a higher incidence of hypertension, a lower level of HDL-C, and higher levels of waist circumference, HOMA-IR, TG, and TC/HDL-C, a greater extent of microvasculopathy, an increased log (hsCRP), homocysteine, and carotid IMT than did diabetic patients without MS. 4) Among the component of MS, the presence of hypertriglyceridemia had an influence on the IMT mean and max. 5) The carotid IMT of patients with DM correlated with age, homocysteine, log (hsCRP), and uric acid on univariate analysis, and age and homocysteine we found to be independent risk factors of carotid IMT on multivariated analysis. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome in subjects with glucose intolerance increases the risk of atherosclerosis.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal