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Byong Ik Kim  (Kim BI) 2 Articles
Relationship Among Urinary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) Excretion Rates, Urinary Albumin Excretion and Macrovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Yoon Sang Choi, Sang Hoon Kim, Hyang Kim, Yun Kyung Cho, Hyun Ju Um, Si Yong Kim, Byong Ik Kim, Yoo Lee Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(2):245-255.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Increased loss of proteoglycan (PG) from glomerular basement membrane (GBM) has been postulated to alter glomerular charge selectivity which contributes to urinary loss of albumin. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is the degradation products of PG. Recently, one of the hypothesis suggested that urinary albumin execretion(UAE) reflects not only merely a glomerular manifes-tation but also a macrovascular disease (by Deckert et al), Wasty et al. reported a significant decrease in total GAG concentration and marked changes in their distribution in atherosclarotic plaques in human. Thus, the alterations in the metabolism of GAG might play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic macroangiopathy. Therefore, we investigated the relationship among urinary GAG execretion rates, UAE and macrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We measured urinary excretion rates of GAS in type 2 diabetic patients with and without macrovascular disease ( cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and other peripheral vascular disease ) and investigated the relationships among urinary execretion of GAG, UAE and macrovascular disease in 103 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: 1) Among total 103 patients, 66 patients (64.0%) showed normoal-buminuria, 18 patients (17.5%) showed microabluminuria and 19 paitents (18.4%) showed macro albuminuria respectively. The duration of diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetic retinopathy and macrovascular disease were increased according to the degree of UAE. 2) The urinary excretion rates of GAG in type 2 diabetes mellitus with normo-, microand macro-albuminuria were 6.72+/-4.05, 9.17+/-3.26 and 14.20+/-6.13 microgram glucuronic acid/min respectively (p<0.05). The urinary GAG levels were significantly correlated with UAE (r=0.43, p<0.05). 3) The urinary excretion rates of GAG in type 2 diabetes mellitus with (n=26) and without (n=77) macrovascular disease were 6.21+/-2.75 and 9,31+/-5.59 ug glucuronic acid/min, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: 1) The urinary excretion rates of GAG were decreased in patients with macro vascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2) The urinary excretion rates of GAG may be a possible marker of macrovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet, further large prospective studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
The Comparison between Doppler Ultrasonography and Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging (DITI) in Detecting the Diabetic Peripheral Angiopathy.
Yoon Sang Choi, Hyun Ju Um, Seung Oh Song, Si Yong Kim, Byong Ik Kim, Young Uk Lee, Seok Won Park, Yoo Lee Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Yong Wook Cho, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(5):686-694.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The frequency of nontraumatic lower extremities amputation has significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM). Digital Infrared Thermographic (DITI) has been used to demonstrate the skin temperature and its change. mellitus Imaging regional Doppler ultrasonography was developed to show excellent images of superficial arteries. In this study, we observed the relationship between DITI and doppler ultrasonography for detection or evaluation of diabetic peripheral angiopathy. METHODS: 71 patients with type 2 DM were divided to groups with and without peripheral arterial obliteration (PAO) by ankle pressure index (API). For all patients, doppler ultrasonography of lower extremities was performed in measuring inner diameter, wall thickness and calcification of femoral, popliteal and dorsalis pedis artery. DITI was done also. We analized the result of doppler ultrasono-graphy and DITI findings. RESULT: 1) In clinical characteristics of patients between nonperipheral arterial obliteration (NPAO) and PAO : there was no significant differences between two groups with respect to age, sex, smoking, BMI (body mass index), FPG (fasting plasma glucose)/2HPG (2 hour plasma glucose), HbA(1C), serum lipid profile and/or the frequency of NPDR (nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy). However, the number of patients with hypertension and 24hr urine total protein amount were significantly increased in PAO group. 2) The results of doppler ultrasonographic imaging of lower extremities: In PAO group, inner diameters of common femoral artery and dorsalis pedis artery were significantly narrower than in those of NPAO group. However, no difference was detected in respect to vessel wall thickness. The numbers of calcified vessel wall have significantly increased in all vessels in PAO group 3) The results of DITI patterns of big toes after cold stimulus: (1) In 49 patients with NPAO: 11 showed as normal, 14 an increased, 15 a decreased, and 9 flat patterns, respectively. (2) All of 22 patients with PAO showed abnormal patterns. Among them, 2 showed a decreased, but 20 a flat pattern. 4) The comparison between the results of doppler ultrasonography and DITI: In all groups, inner diameter of common femoral artery, which was measured by doppler ultrasonography, were narrow in the flat pattern. Also, the number of calcified vessel walls in common femoral artery and dorsalis pedis artery increased more in the same patterns. No significant difference of vessel wall thickness was found between both groups. CONCLUSION : Vasoreaction of lower extremities after cold stimulus was mainly related to PAO of the common femoral artery and dorsalis pedis artery. DITI is a useful method used in detecting the early state of artherosclerosis. As a result, it can be employed in early prevention and treatment of diabetic angiopathy. If DITI is combined with doppler ultrasonography, we can practice more precise diagnosis and follow-up in diabetic peripheral angiopathy.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal