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Bong Nam Chae  (Chae BN) 2 Articles
Microvascular Complications and lts Relationship with Obesity in Outpatient Type 2 Diabetics.
Seong Kyu Lee, Bong Nam Chae, Eun Gyoung Hong, Hye Lim Noh, Hyeon Kyoung Cho, Yoon Jung Kim, Mi Deok Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee, Nam Han Cho, Hyeon Man Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):60-70.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Korean type 2 diabetic patients who are frequently non-obese, may be genetically different from Western type 2 diabetics who are frequently obese. Therefore, the diabetic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea may be also different from those of Western countries. Until now, most studies reported in Korea did not analyse the microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus according to obesity, and also the criteria in the diagnosis of microvascular complications were different in each study. We investigated the microvascular complications and its relationship with obesity, in type 2 diabetic patients visiting an outpatient clinic. METHODS: The study subjects were type 2 diabetic patients visiting an outpatient clinic of Ajou University Hospital. We selected patients participating in a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, retrospectively. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed according to the WHO/NDDG classification of diabetes. Biochemical studies including lipid profile, plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were done. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Based on BMI (kg/m2), the patients were divided into the following groups: the lean group, whan the BMI was less than 20kg/m2; the ideal body weight (IBW) group, if the BMI was between 20 kg/m and 25 kg/m in women and 20kg/m and 27 kg/m in men; and the obese group, when the BMI was>25 kg/m in women and >27 kg/m2 in men. RESULTS: 1. Neuropathy (45.2%) was the most frequent among the microvascular complications, and the frequency of retinopathy was 15.1%, and that of nephropathy was 4.9k. Within 5 years of diabetes duration, the frequency of neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy was 43.2%, 11.8%, and 2,9%, respectively. 2. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were not different among the three groups. Beta cell function{delta(insulin 30min insulin Omin)/delta(glucose 30min - glucose Omin)} was the highest in the obese group, However, beta cell function(delta/delta G) divided by the basal insulin level, considered insulin resistance, was not different among the three groups. 3. Within 5 years of diabetes duration, retinopathy tended to be the most frequent in the lean group, whereas neuropathy tended to be the most frequent in the obese group, and body mass index influenced the retinopathy and neuropathy, statistically significantly. CONCLUSION: Diabetic neuropathy was the most frequent among microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in our study subjects. At the time of presentation within 5 years of diabetes duration, the lean group of type 2 diabetics had a tendency of the more frequent retinopathy, the obese group had a tendency of the more frequent neuropathy. These results suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea is also not a singie disease entity, as in Western countries and is a heterogenous group of disorders with a diversity of microvascular complications. However, the more studies about this will be required.
The Role of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Resistance in the Development of Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Bong Nam Chae, Seong Kyu Lee, Eun Gyoung Hong, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee, Hyeon Man Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):491-503.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Impaired insulin secretinn, peripheral insulin resistance, a disproportionately elevated rate of hepatic glucose production and influence of inherited or enviromental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM). But, which defect is primary is still controversial To determine whether insulin resistance or insulin deficiency is primary in the pathogenesis of type 2 DM, we studied normal glucose tolerant offsprings of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 22 offsprings of type 2 diabetic patients with normal glucose tolerance, ranging in age from 20 to 40 years, and 17 control subjects in same age range who had no family history of diabetes, and 21 diabetic subjects were included. We performed 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, euglycemic hyper-insulinemic clamp test and hyperglycemic clamp test. RESULTS: With euglycemic clamp test, the values of peripheral insulin sensitivity, M, were 8.59+0.94 mg/kg/min in control group, 6.98+0.65 mg/kg/min in offspring group, and 5.19+0.89 mg/kg/min in diabetes group (P<0.05). Considering that lower limit of the normal range were 3.78 mg/kg/min in M and 3.10 mg/kg/min in M/I, the frequency of insulin resistance was 14.3% in the offspring group and 33.3 % in diabetes group. First and second phase insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamp test were blunted in diabetes group. In the offspring group, first and second phase insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamp test were increased greater than control group, though statistically insignificant. The mean first phase insulin secretion were 38.55+6.81 pU/mL in control group, 55.09+9.40 pU/mL in the offspring group and 6.02+0.98 pU/mL in diabetes group (P<0.05). The mean second phase insulin secretion were 65.11+15.5 pU/mL in control group, 90.25 + 11.9 pU/mL in the offspring group and 17.6 +2.71 pUmL in diabetes group(P<0,05). Considering that lower limit of the normal range were 19.5 pU/mL in the first phase insulin secretion and 26.1 pU/mL in the second phase insulin secretion, the frequency of impaired insulin secretion was 14.3 % in the offspring group and 100 % in diabetes group. There was an inverse relation between insulin resistance and insulin secretion in control subjects. But in the offspring group, this relation was absent. CONCLUSION: Our results show that both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion contribute to the development of type 2. DM in Koreans. In addifion, diabetic subjects had more severe impairment in insulin secretory capacity than insulin resistance.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal